听老外说一见钟情love at first sight感觉好轻松啊，中英文都是四个字，汉语字正腔圆，一字一音，英文行云流水，一气呵成，但中国人改不掉自己的字正腔圆和一字一音，容易读成“乐午 艾特 弗斯特 赛特”，老外是一秒钟读完：“乐午艾福斯赛”。AT FIRST SIGHT词尾的三个T通通不用发音，（by the way，英语单词中间和词尾的t和d都可以不发音），love与at连读，at作为介词轻轻带过，first由于t不发音最后一个音变成s，与后一个sight的第一个音一样，只用发一次s的音，最后读成lova firsai。所以能一秒钟说完一见钟情才算是说正宗自然的英文。
父亲节恰逢京东618，终于决定下单佳能eos m6微单，转接50mm 1.8 stm单反人像镜头套装，为了轻便，为了不买套机狗头，花了两千多另购微单EF-M 11-22 4-5.6镜头。
Pictures are memories.
《The Baby Book》上有一句：Nothing matures a man like becoming an involved father.（没有什么比成为一个称职的父亲更能让一个男人成熟）
Carmen （女儿英文名） made me a much better man I am today.
9、兵和pawn。走法不尽相同，都是两种棋里最不值钱的子。pawn本意是典当、人质。兵过河后可以横着走，走到底就成废物，pawn是直走斜吃，走到底可以华丽变身queen、castle、knight，任你选！正应了麦克阿瑟那句“老兵不死，只会凋零（Old soldiers never die, they just fade away）“，象棋的兵呢：廉颇老矣，尚能饭否？
娜塔莉·波特曼哈佛演讲印象最深的一句：" It’s acliche because it’s true, that helping others ends up helping you more than anyone. "（这虽然是老生常谈，但它是事实：帮助别人最终会帮到你自己。）
印象深说明有体会，在我的经验中，往往一点举手之劳，一点力所能及，都能给自己赢得不少信任和好印象，日后他们也愿意帮自己。作为被帮助者，我经历过原本是有点较劲的人，但他诚心帮我做了一点事，此后我们的关系大有改善，甚至无话不说，只要他需要帮忙，我就觉得报答的机会来了，一定鼎力相助。这就是Ends up helping YOU more！
Cycling cuts cancer risk
Most of us know that the risk of getting ill is reduced when we look after ourselves. Taking regular exercise has proven to be good for our health and scientists have found that the risk of getting cancer and heart disease is reduced when we take part in physical activity – and now they've found cycling to work is one of the best activities to do this. Well, good news for me then!
The biggest study into the issue, linked using two wheels with a halving of the risk of cancer and heart disease. The five-year study of 250,000 UK commuters also showed walking had some benefits over sitting on public transport or taking the car.
Pedalling to work is already popular in many cities across the world. Some forward-thinking authorities have built cycle lanes to make the commute safer, as well as providing secure places to lock them up. Some companies also provide facilities for their employees to get changed and cleaned up when they arrive at work. It all makes good sense - according to people surveyed in this study, regular cycling cut the risk of death from any cause by 41%, the incidence of cancer by 45% and heart disease by 46%.
For me, cycling to work is quicker and cheaper than using public transport and it's my only form of exercise. And whereas going to the gym to lose a few pounds takes effort and commitment, cycling has just become part of the work routine. Clare Hyde from Cancer Research UK says "This study helps to highlight the potential benefits of building activity into your everyday life. Anything that gets you a bit hot and out of breath … can help make a difference."
But what exactly is it that is making cycling a much healthier option? The research, published in the British Medical Journal, found it wasn't the result of weight loss but it could be that cyclists are leaner and have lower levels of inflammation in the body.
Of course, any exercise is good for you but it's thought that cycling is better than walking because the activity is longer and more intense. Dr Jason Gill, from the University of Glasgow, told the BBC "You need to get to work every day so if you built cycling into the day it essentially takes willpower out of the equation." For me, it's the best and most enjoyable workout I can have – and I don't need to wear skin-tight lycra clothes, as long as I wear the most important accessory, a helmet.
Harvard doctors say this overlooked move is the quickest way to get strong abs
If you think sit-ups are the quickest ticket to 6-pack abs, the physicians at Harvard Medical School have news for you: That classic exercise isn't as efficient as it seems.
Instead of crunches, they suggest doing planks, the exercise that involves holding yourself on your hands and toes in a pre-push-up position. The findings are detailed in a Harvard Medical School health report called "Core Exercises."
As opposed to sit-ups, which target only your abdominal muscles, planks recruit several groups of muscles along your sides, front, and back. If you want a strong core — especially the kind that would give you 6-pack-like definition across your abs — you need to challenge all of these muscles.
"Sit-ups or crunches strengthen just a few muscle groups," write the authors of the Harvard Healthbeat newsletter, which summarizes the report's key takeaways. "Through dynamic patterns of movement, a good core workout helps strengthen the entire set of core muscles you use every day."
Conventional crunches may also be hard on different parts of your body, including your back, which gets pushed against the floor. Additionally, when you pull your body up into a sit-up position, you're working a group of muscles called the hip flexors which run from your thighs to the lumbar vertebrae in your lower back. When these muscles get too tight or become overly-strengthened, they can yank on your lower spine. This can cause pain or discomfort in your lower back.
And unlike ab-crunch machines, planks don't require a single piece of equipment, so you can do them anywhere.
Ready to give them a try?
The folks at Health.com recommend starting out by lying face-down with your legs extended and your elbows bent, directly under your shoulders, with your hands clasped. Your feet should be hip-width apart; your elbows should be shoulder-width apart. Next, tighten your abs and tuck your toes to elevate your body, keeping your forearms on the ground. Your body should be in a straight line from your head to your heels. To start, hold it for one minute.
As you get stronger, you can gradually build up to maintain the position for longer periods of time, and extend your arms to hold yourself up on your palms.
My root is here
The 6th US president rose before dawn for his favorite morning habit: skinny-dipping
You'd think it would cause quite a stir if a US president was known to go skinny-dipping in the Potomac River.
But for many years that was just part of John Quincy Adams' daily routine.
Adams' political career wasn't over even after he lost his presidential reelection bid to Andrew Jackson. He went on to represent Massachusetts for 17 years in Congress and actually died inside the US Capitol.
"John Quincy Adams was the only son of that generation to live up to the Adams family legacy," Massachusetts Historical Society digital projects editor Neal Millikan told Business Insider. "He was a very serious person. He took his duties very seriously."
Adams' diligent, meticulous personality is reflected in his diaries. He kept up daily journals from the time he was 12 to his death at age 80. Millikan is working on creating a digital edition of Adams' diaries, complete with transcriptions and subject analysis.
She spoke with Business Insider about Adams' rigorous morning ritual. In the winter months, he'd skip the swimming and kick off his day with a two-mile walk around Washington. But when the weather was nice, he'd take to the water.
Adams himself summarized his routine in a July 1818 diary entry:
"I rise usually between four and five — walk two miles, bathe in Potowmack river, and walk home, which occupies two hours — read or write, or more frequently idly waste the time till eight or nine when we breakfast— read or write till twelve or one, when I go to the office; now usually in the carriage — at the office till five then home till dinner. After dinner read newspapers till dark; soon after which I retire to bed."
On one or two occasions, the tide nearly washed away Adams' clothes while he was bathing. But according to Millikan, that was just the way people swam in the 19th century.
"It wasn't really that odd that he bathed naked," Millikan says. "He talks about other people leaving their clothes on the rocks. Sometimes he would go alone. Sometimes if his sons were home from Harvard, they would go with him. Sometimes his valet, Antoine, would go with him. He also tried to get a Dutch diplomat whom he met, Mr. Ten Cate, to go with him. Sometimes he would, sometimes he wouldn't."
The president had also undergone a frightening experience in 1825, only three months after being elected to the office.
"He was actually out on a little rickety boat in the Potomac with his valet Antoine," Millikan told Business Insider. "The boat filled with water. He had to jump overboard, and he was pretty much fully dressed. In his diary, he talks about how the loose sleeves of his shirt were filled water and how they were like two weights upon his arms. He almost drowned."
That incident didn't throw Adams off from swimming, however. Over the years he went from bathing for 20 minutes to taking the plunge for a full hour.
On June 19, 1823, he wrote: "I follow this practice for exercise, for health, for cleanliness and for pleasure — I have found it invariably conducive to health, and never experienced from it the slightest inconvenience."
In the same entry, however, Adams said that not everyone agreed with him: "Dr. Huntt and all my friends think I am now indulging it to excess — I never before this day swam an hour at once; and I must now limit my fancies for this habit, which is not without danger — the art of swimming ought in my opinion to be taught as a regular branch of education."
Millikan says the president's physician may have worried that Adams, who was 56 in 1823, was overexerting himself.
Adams did reduce his exercise as age and work caught up with him. But one morning in 1846, the 78-year-old former president returned to the Potomac River for another swim.
"He commented in his diaries that some young men saw him," Millikan says. "They were shouting, 'John Quincy Adams!' He put his clothes on one rock, and they put their clothes on another rock, and they all went swimming together."
The 6th US president rose before dawn for his favorite morning habit: skinny-dipping裸泳
You'd think it would cause quite a stir if a US president was known to go skinny-dipping in the Potomac River.
Her resignation caused quite a stir.她的辞职引起很大震动。
But for many years that was just part of John Quincy Adams' daily routine.日常习惯
Adams followed his father's footsteps to the US presidency, becoming the sixth president. He also held担任〔尤指重要职位〕 various diplomatic positions, including secretary of state under President James Monroe.
follow in sb’s footsteps步某人的后尘，继承某人〔尤指家人〕的事业
He is a doctor and expects his son to follow in his footsteps. 他是医生，期盼儿子继承他的事业。
She works in television, following in her father's footsteps. 她步她父亲的后尘，在电视台工作。
Millikan is working on creating a digital edition of Adams' diaries, complete with包含/涵盖 transcriptions and subject analysis.
On one or two occasions,有一两次 the tide nearly washed away Adams' clothes while he was bathing. But according to Millikan, that was just the way people swam in the 19th century.
It wasn't really that odd一点也不奇怪 that he bathed naked.
used to emphasize a statement
• There’s no excuse, you know.你要知道，没什么借口好找的。
used to make sure that someone understands what you are saying
• I felt very upset, you know?我觉得心里很烦，懂吗？
used when you want to keep someone’s attention, but cannot think of what to say next
• Well, you know, we’ve got a job to do here.嗯，要知道，我们在这里有活儿要干。
used when you are explaining or describing something and want to give more information
• That flower in the garden – you know, the purple one – what is it?花园里的那种花，你知道，就是紫色的那种，它叫什么？
you know/do you know
used to start talking about something, or make someone listen
• You know, I sometimes feel I don’t know him at all.你知道吗，我有时候感觉自己一点都不了解他。Do you know, when I went out this morning that man was still there.你知道吗，今天早晨我出去时，那个男人还在那里。
used to agree with someone or to say that you feel the same way
• ‘We have to talk about it, Rob.’ ‘Yeah, I know.’“罗布，这件事我们得谈谈。”“好啊，我也这么想。
used to say that you have suddenly had an idea, thought of a solution to a problem etc
• I know! Let’s go out for a meal on your birthday.有了！你生日那天我们出去吃饭吧。
used to stop someone from interrupting because they have an opinion about what you are saying
• It sounds silly, I know, but I will explain.,I know, I know, I should have had the car checked out before now.这听起来很傻，我知道，但我会解释的。,我知道，我知道，我应该事先把汽车检查一下的。
I don’t know
used to say that you do not have the answer to a question
• ‘When did they arrive?’ ‘I don’t know.’“他们是什么时候到的？”“我不知道。”
used when you are not sure about something
• ‘How old do you think he is?’ ‘Oh, I don’t know – sixty, seventy?’“你觉得他有多大年纪？”“哦，我不清楚。 60，70？”
used to show that you disagree slightly with what has just been said
• ‘I couldn’t live there.’ ‘Oh, I don’t know. It might not be so bad.’“我没法在那里生活。”“噢，我倒不这么认为，可能没那么糟吧。”
BrE used to show that you are slightly annoyed
• Oh, I don’t know! You’re hopeless!唉，真是的！ 你无药可救了！
I don’t know how/why etc
used to criticize someone
• I don’t know how people could keep an animal in those conditions.我真想不到怎么会有人把动物养在那样的环境里。
I don’t know about you, but...
used to give your opinion, decision, or suggestion when you are not sure that the person you are talking to will feel the same way
• I don’t know about you, but I’ll be glad when Christmas is over.不知道你怎么想，我是希望圣诞节早点结束。
I don’t know how to thank you/repay you
used to thank someone
wouldn’t you know (it)
used to say that something is not at all surprising
• I was told in no uncertain terms that Helen, wouldn’t you know it, didn’t approve.别人肯定地告诉我说海伦不赞成，难道你不知道？
you don’t know
used to emphasize how strong your feelings are
• You don’t know how much I missed him.你不知道我那时多么惦念他。
I wouldn’t know
used to say that you do not know the answer to something and that you are not the person who would know
what does sb know?
used to say angrily that someone’s opinion is wrong or that it is not important
• What does she know about relationships?恋爱的事她懂些什么？
how should I know?/how am I to know?/how do I know?
used to say that it is not reasonable to expect that you should know something
• ‘When will they be back?’ ‘How should I know?’“他们什么时候回来？”“我怎么知道？”
how was I to know?/how did I know?
used as an excuse when something bad has happened
• How was I to know that the file was confidential?我怎么会知道这是一份机密文件？
be not to know
BrE used to say that you do not mind that someone has made a mistake because they could not have avoided it
• ‘Sorry, I didn’t realize you had guests.’ ‘That’s all right – you weren’t to know.’“很抱歉，我没想到你有客人。”“没关系，你又不知道。”
I ought to know
used to emphasize that you know about something because you made it, experienced it etc
• ‘Are you sure there’s no sugar in this coffee?’ ‘Of course. I ought to know – I made it!’“你肯定这杯咖啡里没有糖吗？”“当然肯定，我自己冲的我还不知道！”
for all I know
used to emphasize that you do not know something and say that it is not important to you
• I don’t know where she is. She could have been kidnapped for all I know.我不知道她在哪里，说不定她被人绑架了。
not that I know of
used to say that you think the answer is ‘no’ but there may be facts that you do not know about
• ‘Did he call earlier?’ ‘Not that I know of.’“他早些时候来过电话吗？”“据我所知没有。”
used to say that you do not know the answer to a question
• ‘Where do you think he’s disappeared to this time?’ ‘God knows!’,Goodness knows why she didn’t go herself.“你说这回他去哪里了呢？”“天知道！”,天知道她为什么不自己去。
used to emphasize a statement
• Goodness knows, I’ve never liked the woman, but I didn’t know how bad it would be to work with her.老天作证，我从来就不喜欢这女人，可我也不知道和她一起工作会这么糟糕。
knowing my luck
used to say that you expect something bad will happen because you are usually unlucky
• Knowing my luck, the train will be late.我知道自己向来倒霉，这趟火车要晚点了。
(well,) what do you know?
used to express surprise
• Well, what do you know? Look who’s here!啊，真没想到，看看谁来了！
if you know what’s good for you
used to tell someone that they should do something, or something bad will happen
• You’ll keep your mouth shut about this if you know what’s good for you!如果你知道好歹的话，就别把这事说出去！
you know who/what
used to talk about someone or something without mentioning their name
• I saw you know who yesterday.昨天我看到那谁了。
以上从朗文词典复制。如果这些know都按字面理解直译，会有多不到位？如果没有解释和翻译，我们能真正看懂多少？一个know加上简单的搭配就能地道的表达各种微妙的语气。We should know about it。
I've never wanted to be a househusband, nor enjoyed cooking. But now I would like to watch cooking shows on TV and try to follow the recipes. The great thing about learning to cook is that once you master a dish, you can always serve it. A cozy family dinner can make everyone nod in satisfaction. Cooking at home is not only economical, but also a way to enjoy life.
How can I make online videos stream smoothly?
When trying to watch videos on youtube, etc., the video feed stops and starts. Is this caused by too little RAM (512)? Or is the video playspeed just faster than the download speed? I don't understand much about this stuff. Can someone clue me in, or offersuggestions?
stream smoothly播放流畅，not smoothly卡
stops and starts卡
I don't understand much about this stuff. （实用句：这个我不太懂）
clue somebody in (on something)(informal)to give somebody the most recent information about something给（某人）提供最新信息He's just clued me in on the latest developments. 他刚给我提供了最新的进展情况。
Get A Faster Internet Connection.. If the data is streamed as fast as the video is playing, it will stutter, stop, start, etc.
stutter 卡，原意是结巴：W-w-what?' he stuttered.
Here's what you should be doing to get fit instead of training for a marathon
So you swore you'd run a marathon this year.
Good news: You can stop feeling guilty about not starting to train for it yet.
As it turns out, you can get some of the same benefits of long-distance running and other types of endurance training without ever passing the five-mile mark.
That's right. Running fast and hard for five to 10 minutes a day can add years to your life, just as running for hours can. In fact, people who run for less than an hour a week — so long as they get in their few minutes of daily running — get similar benefits in terms of heart health compared with people who run more than three hours a week.
That finding squares with recent research showing that short bursts of intense exercise can provide some of the same health benefits as long, endurance-style workouts.
Marathoners, meet interval training
One of the most popular forms of the quick workout — and the one that has been studied the most — is interval training. Basically, you work yourself as hard and fast as you can for a few minutes, rest, then do it again.
The best part? It typically lasts between five and 10 minutes total. (There's even a New York Times workout app based on the idea, called the 7-Minute Workout. More on that here.)
A 2012 study comparing a group of runners who did traditional, continuous runs with a group of runners who did interval training found that both groups achieved nearly the same results. There was one small difference, though: The interval trainers had better peak oxygen uptake, an important measure of endurance.
And a recent study in the journal Diabetologia found that doing walking interval training — an hour of alternating between three minutes of brisk walking and three minutes of stopping — helped people with diabetes control their blood-sugar levels far better than simply walking at the same pace continuously.
Still not convinced?
Consider this: Distance running could actually be bad for you.
There's some evidence to suggest that prolonged, intense exercise — such as the type necessary in the weeks and months before a marathon and in the race itself — can have some unhealthy side effects, from reduced immune function to digestive issues.
Working the body to its maximum, some research shows, can reduce the body's natural ability to fend off upper-respiratory infections including colds and the flu. Short bouts of activity, on the other hand, improve immune function. Quick workouts appear to not only reduce your chances of getting sick, but also to reduce the severity of an illness when you do come down with something.
Up to 71% of long-distance runners also experience abdominal cramping and diarrhea. (The latter is so frequent that runners have a term for it: "runner's trots," aka "runner's diarrhea.") Many runners, even those without a history of it, experience acid reflux — a condition with effects like heartburn, indigestion, coughing, hoarseness, and asthma — during and immediately after a long run.
Here's what it all comes down to: Whether you stick to a long-distance routine or opt for a quicker, daily exercise plan, it's important to keep in mind that more is not always better.
回答者Teresa Peng, A BBC linguist and foodie, living and working in China for 7 years
I'm a British-born Chinese and have been living in China for 7 years and I think the answer to this question depends on what you mean by "shouldn't".
Things which may not be culturally acceptable might include:
1. Don't stick your chopsticks upright in a bowl of rice (it looks like the incense burnt for the dead).
2. Don't call anyone of an older generation by their name, it's considered disrespectful. Best to call them Aunty or Uncle.
3. Avoid controversial topics: politics, sexuality, human rights, etc.
Things which are not advisable might include:
1. Do not put your bag on the floor, because probably at some point someone has spit, peed, pooped or any combination of the three in the same spot.
2. Depending on how brave you are, don't ask what meat is in a dish if you'd rather not know. There are delicious foods here if you can turn a blind eye to what it once was.
Most importantly, in my time here I've learnt not to be surprised by anything and to keep an open mind. I used to look down on things like the peeing in the streets, the dancing ladies in the squares, the lack of any concept of personal space or hygiene or the rats running by whilst I'm in the middle of my dinner. In the end, I decided to get off my high horse and just accept it for what it is: a fascinatingly different culture. I have no right to say my own culture is better than that of the Chinese and I think there's a huge amount we can learn from each other. You shouldn't come here with preconceptions.
dancing lady in the squares：广场舞大妈
the lack of concept of personal space or hygiene：没有私人空间意识，不讲卫生
get off my high horse：放下身段
Culture difference：“按照中国的习惯，小辈通常不能以名字称呼长辈（甚至哥哥、姐姐），而在西方，子女对父母（甚至孙子、孙女称呼祖父母）直呼其名是一种亲切的表示。一次，我去一位美国朋友家做客，初次见面时，他家4岁的孩子叫我“Mr. Chen”，去过几次后小家伙见了我老远就喊:“Dezhang, come here and see my new toys!”这表明他已把我当成他的好朋友。”《陈德彰：做“老子”也未必占便宜》
A massive new report that looked at 30 years of research just said GMOs are safe
Genetically modified crops have a controversial history, especially when it comes to deciding whether or not the foods are safe — for the environment and for our health.
The crops, which have been around since the 1980s, have been studied at length, and a new report out Tuesday from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine found that GMO crops aren't posing any greater risk to the environment compared with regular crops. It also found "no evidence" that they "are less safe to eat than conventional food."
Foods that have been genetically modified include genes taken from another organism (bacteria, etc.) to protect them against certain pests or herbicides.
Here's what you need to know about the 400-page report:
GMOs and safety: There have been concerns that genetically engineered crops could have an effect on everything from allergies to cancer. But the report said that they found no evidence of an increase or decrease in health problems once GMO foods were introduced in the 1990s.
GMOs and the environment: The report found that there was actually some benefit to non-GMO crops that were near other genetically modified counterparts because of fewer insects, though the report also observed increased herbicide resistance in weeds. More generally, thet found "no conclusive evidence of cause-and-effect relationships between GE crops and environmental problems."
Farmers' wallets: Farmers using genetically modified crops generally had a more positive economic benefit even though they didn't necessarily get a bigger crop yield.
Overall, the report lends more support to the idea that we can still do more research into GMOs and their effects, and suggested regulatory agencies should actively be addressing newer GMO technologies.
An Indian scientist points to a patch of GM rapeseed crop under trial in New Delhi
Translated from Business Insider
与Hellen聊天时，想表达“我不喜欢三门冰箱”，顺手打出了“I don't really like 3-door fridge." 一看感觉有点不靠谱，不太放心冰箱的门是不是叫door，三门难道就叫3-door？
重点来啦，if you can't find the word in a dictionary, go to amazon.com and search!
两门是double door，三门不就是tripple door吗！难道我不知道tripple吗，但是就是没想到啊。于是搜fridge tripple door，看到这个：
虽然不是我想找的国内流行的那种竖着的三门，不知道为什么老外不用那种，但看到确实是tripple door，原来我的3 door也可以，呵呵。
单门的说法比较多，有compact all refrigerator（紧凑型一体机），single door，mini fridge，还有一种专门冰饮料的beverage refrigerator。歪果仁真是无聊，冰饮料都要单独买个冰箱吗。
And my personal favorite is...
Kinda cool, huh? Powered by USB诶，你不来一台吗？
Godless Universe: A Physicist Searches for Meaning in Nature
The natural world is the only world, theoretical physicist Sean Carroll argues in a new book
It is time to face reality, California Institute of Technology theoretical physicist Sean Carroll says: There is just no such thing as God, or ghosts, or human souls that reside outside of the body. Everything in existence belongs to the natural world and is accessible to science, he argues. In his new book“The Big Picture: On the Origin of Life,Meaning, and the Universe Itself,”out this week from Dutton, Carroll describes a guiding philosophy along these lines that he calls poetic naturalism. It excludes a supernatural or spiritual realm but still allows plenty of room for life to have a purpose.
“I think we can bring ideas like meaning and morality into our discussions of the natural world,”Carroll says.“The ways that we talk about the universe are what make it meaningful. He eloquently argues that point in his far-ranging book, which takes on the origins of consciousness, the likeliness of God based on a rigorous application of Bayesian probability statistics, and many other“big”questions that scientists are often loath to tackle.
Scientific American spoke with Carroll about his philosophy and how we can all take a closer look at just what we truly, deeply believe.
[An edited transcript of the conversation follows.]
Naturalism is the viewpoint that everything arises from natural causes and that there is no supernatural realm. You coin the term“poetic naturalism”for your own particular brand of this guiding philosophy. Why the need for a new term?
Naturalism has been certainly been around for a very long time, but as more people become naturalists and talk to each other, their disagreements within naturalism are interesting. I thought there was ajudicious middle ground, which I call poetic, between“the world is just abunch of particles,”and“science can be used to discover meaning and morality.”
To me the connotations of“poetic”are that there's some human choice that comes into how we talk about the world. In particular, when it comes to questions of morality and meaning, the way we go about deciding what is right and wrong, and meaningful or not, is not the same as the way we discover what is true and false.
Just because we have no evidence of another realm of reality beyond the physical world, how can we conclude it doesn't exist?
It's not a matter of certainty, ever. I would make the argument that if there were a supernatural element that played a role in our everyday life in some noticeable way, it's very, very likely we would have noticed it. It just seems weird that this kind of thing would be so crucial and yet so difficult to notice in any controlled scientific way. I would make the case that it is sufficiently unlikely in a fair Bayesian accounting that we don't need to spendany time thinking about it anymore. Five hundred years ago it would have been a possibility. I think these days we're ready to move on.
All I can say at the end of the day is we should all be trying as hard as we can to guard against our individual cognitive biases, the things we want to be true. The existence of life after death, for example, I would love that to be true. My cognitive bias is in favor of that. And yet I don't think it is true. The best we can do is try to be honest.
So do you think it's impossible for a religious person to believe in poetic naturalism?
Of course that depends on what you mean by religious. There's actually a movement called religious naturalism. Religion involves a whole bunch of things—practices, casts of mind, morals, etc., so you can certainly imagine calling yourself religious, reading the Bible, going to church and just not believing in God. I suspect the number of people who do that is much larger than the number of people who admit to it.
The mistake comes when we try to pretend that it doesn't matter what our view of the ontology of the world is. I think it does matter. But having made those decisions [about your worldview], there are many ways you can live a life that's meaningful and socially relevant and familial. I think we have a misunderstanding of meaning because we relate it to something outside the natural world, when it doesn't have to be that.
This argument for naturalism feels particularly timely, when politicians and many in society are increasingly hostile to science and evidence-based thinking. How receptive to the approach of naturalism do you think most people are?
I think that scientists have a sort of professional level of understanding of the universe, and scientists are overwhelmingly naturalists. Whereas people on the street, or in Washington, D.C., still don't admit to this. There aren't a lot of naturalists in Congress. The way we talk about these things in the public sphere has not caught up with the way we understand the universe as it really is.
As a physicist, what inspired you to write a book essentially on philosophy?
It evolved over a very long time. I've always been interested in not only physics directly, but also the wider consequences. I was a philosophy minor as an undergraduate. I always have thought that doing physics was part of a larger intellectual project of trying to understand the whole world in different ways.
What do you hope readers take away from this book?
I think there's a bunch of people who still, because they just haven't thought about it that much, have the informal idea that science can explain what happens when two atoms bump into each other, but it can't explain how the universe started or how life began. I hope people get the idea that we're well on our way to answering those questions. There's no obstacle in our way that says we're just not going to be able to.
Need to remember something? Better draw it, study finds
Researchers at the University of Waterloo have found that drawing pictures of information that needs to be remembered is a strong and reliable strategy to enhance memory.
"We pitted drawing against a number of other known encoding strategies, but drawing always came out on top," said the study's lead author, Jeffrey Wammes, PhD candidate in the Department of Psychology. "We believe that the benefit arises because drawing helps to create a more cohesive memory trace that better integrates visual, motor and semantic information."
“我们将画画与其他已知的记忆编码手段做了对比，画画总是能胜出，” Jeffrey Wammes（研究组的带头人、心理学系的博士生）说，“我们相信画画具有优势，因为画画把视觉、运动神经、语义信息结合起来，创造出完整的记忆痕迹。
The study, by Wammes, along with fellow PhD candidate Melissa Meade and Professor Myra Fernandes, presented student participants with a list of simple, easily drawn words, suchas "apple." The students were given 40 seconds to either draw the word, or write it out repeatedly. They were then given a filler task of classifying musical tones to facilitate the retention process. Finally, the researchers asked students to freely recall as many words as possible from the initial listin just 60 seconds.
Wammes带领博士生Melissa Meade和Myra Fernandes教授给参与研究的学生一个单词列表，这些单词很容易画出来，比如“苹果”。学生有40秒的时间，可以选择画出单词，也可以选择重复的写单词，接着让他们填写一个给乐音分类的表格以促进记忆进程。最后，研究者让他们在60秒内尽可能地回忆那个单词列表的内容。
The study appeared in the the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology.
"We discovered a significant recall advantage for words that were drawn as compared to those that were written," said Wammes. "Participants often recalled more than twice as many drawn than written words. We labelled this benefit 'the drawing effect,' which refers to this distinct advantage of drawing words relative to writing them out."
In variations of the experiment in which students drew the words repeatedly, or added visual details to the written letters, such as shading or other doodles, the results remained unchanged. Memory for drawn words was superior to all other alternatives. Drawing led to better later memory performance than listing physical characteristics, creating mental images, and viewing pictures of the objects depicted by the words.
"Importantly, the quality of the drawings people made did not seem to matter, suggesting that everyone could benefit from this memory strategy, regardless of their artistic talent. In line with this, we showed that people still gained a huge advantage in later memory, even when they had just 4 seconds to draw their picture," said Wammes.
While the drawing effect proved reliable in testing, the experiments were conducted with single words only. Wammes and his team are currently trying to determine why this memory benefit is so potent, and how widely it can be applied to other types of information.
The benefits of being bilingual can be seen in 11-month-old babies
Numerous studies point to the benefits of speaking more than one language, with research showing that bilingual adults have a higher volume of gray matter and could recover more easily from brain injuries.
Scientists have also found that the positive effects of bilingualism can be seen in young children, but a new study suggests that the benefits of exposing a person to more than one language can be seen even when we're just a few months old.
"Our results suggest that before they even start talking, babies raised in bilingual households are getting practice at tasks related to executive function," said neuroscientist Naja Ferjan Ramírez from the University of Washington. "This suggests that bilingualism shapes not only language development, but also cognitive development more generally."
“我们的研究结果显示，在孩子开始说话前，双语环境实际上提供接受了执行力的训练，”华盛顿大学的神经系统科学家Naja Ferjan Ramírez说，“双语教育不仅塑造语言能力，还从总体上培养认知能力。”
According to the researchers, just as babies are about to turn 1 year old and start speaking themselves, they begin to make a change in how they process the sounds of spoken words, and this is where being raised in a bilingual household can be an advantage.
"Monolingual babies show a narrowing in their perception of sounds at about 11 months of age – they no longer discriminate foreign-language sounds they successfully discriminated at six months of age,"said one of the team, Patricia Kuhl. "But babies raised listening to two languages seem to stay 'open' to the sounds of novel languages longer than their monolingual peers, which is a good and highly adaptive thing for their brains to do."
The findings, published in Developmental Science, are based on observations made of 16 11-month-old babies who took part in the experiment. Eight of the babies came from families where English was the only language spoken, whereas the remaining eight came from Spanish-English households.
The scientists used magnetoencephalography (MEG) imaging to monitor the babies' brain activity as they listened to an 18-minute stream of speech sounds specific to either English or Spanish, or common to both.
The team found that when listening to the audio, the bilingual babies showed stronger responses in their prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices – regions of the brain associated with things like cognitive processing and decision making.
Interestingly, the researchers found that the bilingual babies displayed neural sensitivity to both English and Spanish sounds, suggesting they were indeed learning both languages.
Also, the monolingual babies weren't any more sensitive to English than the bilingual babies, meaning the cognitive burden of being exposed to two languages wasn't slowing the bilinguals' learning rates, despite the double whammy.
While the findings will need to be confirmed in a larger study with more babies, they could come as a relief to bilingual parents concerned that 'overexposing' their children to two languages might hamper their learning.
"The 11-month-old baby brain is learning whatever language or languages are present in the environment and is equally capable of learning two languages as it is of learning one language," said Ferjan Ramírez. "Our results underscore the notion that not only are very young children capable of learning multiple languages, but that early childhood is the optimum time for them to begin."
The vital reason why you shouldn't wear the same pair of shoes every day
Give your shoes a rest.
Don't just slip on the same trusty pair of dress shoes day after day.
Why? Because if you let them rest they'll stay alive so much longer.
Here, take it from an expert:
"The best way to extend the life of your shoes is to rotate your shoes and use quality shoe trees after each wear," said Jim Kass, vice president of operations for Allen Edmonds shoe company.
As you wear your shoes, the leather soaks up the perspiration your feet give off. That sounds pretty gross, but it's totally normal — as long as you give the shoe ample time to dry.
"If you wear the same pair everyday, your shoes don't have ample time to dry and they won't maintain their shape," Kass told us.
If you don't give your shoes a day to air out, the sweat-soaked leather will warp, and your shoes will start to lose their shape — not to mention get musty and start to stink. The damper leather is also more prone to damage like scratches.
So, it behooves you to purchase at least one other pair and switch off between the two. Your original pair will last much longer, and you'll have another pair to mix and match with new outfits. It's a win-win.
Plus, variety is the spice of life. Who wants to wear the same pair of shoes every single day?
If you'd like to be extra cautious with your prized shoe collection, invest in some shoe trees. Put them in after you take your shoes off for the day, and they'll not only soak up your foot's sweat quicker, but keep your shoes in perfect shape.
The moonlight started a long train of melancholy thoughts.
The moonlight stirred up many a sad memory.
The moonlight plunged me into a deeppensive mood.
记得当年翻译在美遇刺的台湾报人江南著《蒋经国传》时，有句“经国在很多方面继承了老蒋的衣钵”，我是毅然抛开了“衣钵”=“mantle”这座桥的，而是“飞越”之后自问找到了一个很理想的着陆点：“Chin-kuo is his father's son in many ways”。曾因此受到与翻译“不共戴天”的葛老夫子传槼先生的褒奖（葛认为所有的翻译都难免导致误解），并由此从葛那里得了个“戴天先生”的绰号。葛还表示遗憾，因为上述“飞越”和“抵达”无法见容于双语词典中任何一个词目之下。
又譬如英译汉中碰到某某人在赛跑开始前felt his adrenalin surging and knew he was in the zone, 在“adrenalin”和“肾上腺素”之间搭座桥可能也无不可，于是出以如下译文，似乎也算“抵达”了：“感到肾上腺素（在体内）奔腾，知道自己处于最佳竞技状态”。就怕读者生理知识不足，不解肾上腺素分泌的作用；更何况人的躯体容积有限，分泌物如何“奔腾”得起来？笔者在大学时代好歹也曾是个运动员，每逢参加比赛前集合点名时就心跳加速，激灵连连，手心出汗，有时非上厕所不可。现在知道这就是肾上腺素分泌的结果了。所以能不能以另一种译法“抵达”：“浑身一激灵，知道进入竞技状态了”？至于感到“热血沸腾”，“浑身来劲”等等译法，窃以为完全没有“抵达”。
在一些新出现的词语之间直接搭桥，好像困难更大一些。例如，在一次“Hemingway Look-Alike Contest”（看看谁长得更像海明威的竞赛）中，一位参赛者来自弗罗里达，也捕鱼，“his face full of leathery character lines”。何谓“character lines”？搭桥式翻译：“脸上布满粗大的性格纹”。“性格纹”不但闻所未闻而且艰涩费解吧？如改作“脸上布满又粗又深的沧桑纹”如何？不说“抵达”，是否多少“抵近”了一些？“沧桑纹”，我承认，同样不是耳熟能详的归化语，但历经沧桑，性格铸成，刻下皱纹，是否把因果关系表述得更清楚了一些，用在海明威那张脸上，能否顿生联想？至于英语原词是否会存活下来，针对不同的语境，“沧桑纹”能不能为汉语读者接受，且等时间考验吧。同理，仿照“cutting-edge technology”（“利刃式”先进技术）构成的“bleeding-edge technology”（一般比“利刃”更先进，但弄得不好会出现始料不及的问题而割伤自己），译作“‘血刃式’先进技术”，恐怕暂时还难以令人接受。但是，假以时日，“利刃”和“血刃”也很有可能完成“飞越”，就像音译词“克隆”、“艾滋”，半音半义词“因特网”和全义移植的“外科手术式打击”、“以脚投票”等语言现象一样。
一位小字辈作家近作一部长篇小说，编辑要我把书名《租界》译成英语。参照小说内容，我建议译作In the French Concession，加了个介词“in”意在涵盖小说里发生的故事和出现的各色人等，而不加的话，书题完全可能被误读作定义性文字的题目。由于出版社不但要“拥抱文学”，还得“依附市场”，要求英文书名译得“出彩”一些，因问译作“Shanghai Lovers”如何？既要“出彩”，不如浓墨重彩，因而建议他们用Amorous Shanghai（倒头译回去，简直成了《情色上海》！）。俄顷，对方意思又变，拟以男主人公在作品中的诨名“中国排骨”做书题。他们也知道，直接架桥，译作“Chinese ribs”不行，既可能被误作菜名，洋人看了又难免联想到上帝造人。据介绍，男主人公是个中法混血儿，“‘中国肋骨’是言其性感，一种东方异域的、瘦弱情色的、秀气的……”（摘自编辑来信）。我的第一反应是metrosexual，可惜时代语境完全不对，这个词可是专为当代英国小贝式人物准备的；由于故事发生在上世纪30年代，可能用dandy或pussy这类词比较贴合一些，可又必须切断同性恋联想，因为作品写的是“中国肋骨”与两个女人的故事。就这样，我驾着直升机“飞越”了多次：Bony Green Knight太中世纪了？Bony She-Man脂粉气过浓？再说，那是我根据he-man临场撰造的一次性的词，读者能接受吗？直升机盘旋了半天，直到此刻尚未“抵达”。
If someone cheats on their husband, wife, or partner, they have a sexual relationship with another person.
He's cheating on his wife.
I'd found Philippe was cheating on me and I was angry and hurt.
She has been cheating on her husband for years.
Don't go to that shop- they often cheat their customers.
He cheats at cards.
You're not allowed to look at the answers- that's cheating .
Many people feel cheated by the government's refusal to hold a referendum.
cheat death（通常用于新闻报道）：to survive in a situation where you could have died死里逃生，幸免于难
He cheated death when he was rescued from the roof of his blazing cottage.
can't be too careful很容易误以为是“不能太小心”，实际意思完全相反。牛津词典：
Used to warn sb that they should take care to avoid danger or problems 无论怎样小心也不会过分；越小心越好
Don't stay out in the sun for too long─you can't be too careful.
其实应该这样理解，too careful是”过于小心“的一种状态，加上前面的否定can't be，就是不可能达到”过于小心“这种状态，也就是你怎么样都算不上”过于小心“，所以你得多加小心。
锤子手机宣传视频里有一句“No detail, can be too detailed." 中文字幕是：“所有的细节，都决定成败。”同样可以这样理解：没有任何一个细节，可以达到“优化得太过”的状态，细节的优化是永无止境的。欣赏一下锤子手机的宣传语和翻译：
Simplicity, is hidden complexity.
The essence of flat, is super curved.
Uncomfortable, is the new comfortable.
Right is right. Left is also right.
No detail, can be too detailed.